Mīthāq al-Madīnain Islam was landmark document, not only in Muslim history but also in the constitutional history of the world, which talked about mediation and conflict resolution. Prophet Mohammad (SAW) served as a third party mediator between tribal factions, making this the first example of legally mandated conflict resolution in Muslim history.
Mīthāq al-Madīnawas written by Prophet Mohammad (SAW) after his migration to Madina in 622. It is divided into two parts; the first part deals with the rules and regulations for Muslim immigrants (Muhajiroon) and Muslim natives (Ansar) and the second part deals with the rights and responsibilities of the Jews of Madina.This charter contains 47 clauses, which laid the foundation of a sovereign nation-state comprising of Muslims, Jews and Pagans, having equal rights and responsibilities under a common citizenship, which clearly indicates that national integration is an indigenous component of Islam. The philosophy and value of Mīthāq al-Madīna is not specifically for Islam or Muslims, rather it refers to universal doctrine of peace for the whole world regardless of religion, race and ethnicity.Mīthāq al-Madīna-Internal Affairs clearly mention that ‘Wronged must be helped irrespective of any religion’.
Today Madina Charter can act as a harbinger to address the present day questions, offering approaches to solve and prevent divergence between groups having differences in belief and culture, as it was promulgated for a plural society.The methods applied are a vital source of effective means to initiate dialogue within Islamic and with non-Islamic societies. The Madina Charter stressed the importance of achieving justice through communal action based on law, rather than on armed conflict. The Prophet (SAW) served as a third party mediator between tribal factions, making this the first example of legally mandated conflict resolution in Muslim history.This event marks out the great qualities of Prophet Mohammad’s (SAW) character and some of the most splendid aspects of his personality as the leader of one of the greatest historic revolution.Yathrib (old name of Madina) comprised the population of 10,000 that encompassed 22 tribes approximately. About half the inhabitants were Jewish (Banu Qainuqah, Banu Nazir, BanuQuraiz) and the other half were Arab.Allah’s messenger had a standing to be a competent arbitrator as he had facilitated to resolve conflicts at several occasion in Mecca and had an ability of leadership quality devoid in that area.